Annual exhibition "Things are more real than people"
Welcome to the annual exhibition: OBJECTS ARE MORE TRUTHFUL THAN PEOPLE in Tammsaare museum at Vargamäe. This exhibition consists of twelve everyday items from the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, that played a role in the lives of the writer Anton Hansen Tammsaare and people closest to him. The objects that will be telling their stories are the following: a Bible that belonged to Peeter Hansen, the father of Tammsaare; a chair made by the father, a bench made by Tammsaare; a clothing iron that belonged to Tammsaare’s sister, the father’s flask and tankard, his mother’s dowry chest a suitcase belonging to Tammsaare’s brother Jüri Hansen, the father’s mathematics textbook, a script for Tammsaare’s poem, a window of Tammsaare-Põhja Housebarn and a teapot that belonged to the head of Lõuna talu, Jakob Sikenberg. All these everyday items reflect the way of life in Tammsaare’s time, a time before Estonians moved to cities to embrace an urban lifestyle. In their own way, these objects give us some insight in to the great literary works of Tammsaare, ‘Truth and Justice’.
Tammsaare’s father Peeter Hansen’s Bible AT18 / Ar.47:1
The Bible from 1878 is a large dark brown hardback book with pages that have yellowed with time. Standing upright, the rectangular book’s measurements are 30 cm in length, 19 cm in width, and 8 cm in thickness. The faded pattern on the cover of the leather-back book is accentuated by two brass locks and book corners. In the middle of the cover is a cross. The cross is surrounded by a rounded decorative frame, with plant ornaments in each of the four corners. The same motif is repeated on the book’s back and the back cover. The pattern is embossed. The valuable book was protected from excessive wear by four round protective book corners on the front as well as back covers. On the right side, where the book opens, there are two decorative lock clasps in order to safely close the book. The clasps have a golden finish. The upper right corner of the front cover is ever so slightly bent as if the reader has opened the book from the same page time and time again. The Bible text is in Estonian and runs in two columns. The inner pages of the book are stained and darkened. Upon lifting the front cover, there is a blank page, on the top of which is written in flowing handwriting the name of the owner: Hansen.
This Bible, the most meaningful object in the museum, belonged to the father of Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Peeter Hansen. Peeter was a serious and god-fearing man, who often spent time reading the Bible to his family. After all, there was no Internet, or even radio, back then. It was just father Peeter and his Bible. It was thanks to this, that Anton became familiar with stories that were solemn and serious in nature. In many ways, the Bible is what lead the writer to produce the weighty volumes of ‘Truth and Justice’.
„There were many times when Andres suffered defeat and could find no peace of mind, day or night. Mari often woke to discover he was gone from the bed. A lamp burned on the table and Andres sat there, reading the Bible.“ – „Truth and Justice“, p. 437
Chair made by Tammsaare’s father AT 69 /Aj3:4
The faded hardwood chair has four thin legs, a thickly upholstered seat, and a back support made of two crossed rails. The height of the chair’s backrest from the floor is 91 cm, the legs are 40 cm long and the seat width is 42 times 42 cm. In the time this was built, the chair would have been considered fancier than an average wooden chair.
The upper part of the backrest has been worn pleasantly smooth through continuous use. The top of the backrest is 38 cm and the lower part 34cm wide. The horizontal rails decorating the back support are 35 cm long. Both have been sawn into a pattern of winding waves and zig-zags with a large horizontal arc in the middle, a shape that resembles a setting sun if drawn by a child. The decoration is hand-made, and thus slightly clumsy and unintentionally asymmetrical.
The front legs of the chair are round and bend outwards in the end while the back legs are straight and square. Looking at the chair from the point-of-view of someone sitting, one can notice that the front right leg of the chair is covered in little chips in the bottom, as if gnawed at by a local dog or as if someone had been tapping on it with a walking stick. The front left leg is cracked at the attachment. The legs are joined 9 cm below the seat with a round wooden rod fixed to the legs with iron screws.
The upholstering on the seat is uneven and covered in grey linen fabric. It is fixed by large-headed upholstery nails on the edges and it swells snugly.
The raggedy chair is riddled in tell-tale signs of its old age – you can see the attachment places fixed with additional nails and the numerous moth holes in the wood. The visitor might be curious to know (without laying down on the museum floor!) that in the chair base, in addition to the regular grid of furniture straps, two black textured straps are going from front to back under the chair. These are bike tires that have been used to fix the chair in its old age.
A chair like this was used on special occasions and was perhaps kept behind the desk of the head of the household. In the beginning of the 19th century, it was mostly benches that were used in Estonia, chairs were rare. This chair, made by the writer’s father, was a modern and elegant piece of furniture. It must have been the chair that Peeter was sitting on while he was reading the Bible to his family.
After Sass somehow managed to say those words out loud to everyone, old Andres on a chair felt a growing feeling of sitting in a church bench on Christmas Eve, listening to the minister’s sermon, organ playing, and seeing the shiny Christmas tree in front of the altar. – “Truth and Justice,” V
A bench made by Tammsaare AT 108 AJ 43
The low and long spruce wood bench consists of one single board supported by three square wooden blocks. The seat of the bench is 75 cm long and 21 cm wide. The height of the bench is around 15 cm and the width of one block is 9.5 cm, as seen from the front. Along the seat runs a beautiful pattern of the wood grain. Each of the legs of the bench have been cracked from drying for a long time. The leg blocks are attached by three nails. The bench is a faded nutshell colour. It is charming in its simplicity and functionality.
The wooden bench was built by the writer Anton Hansen Tammsaare for his children. It is said that the writer was a very caring father. According to Tammsaare’s son, there was no strict didactics in the family. Instead, the children were treated as equal companions of their father.
Tammsaare took his children on long walks, taught them manners, and helped them in school work. The writer was as persistent a worker as his father. While father Peeter Hansen was a skilled woodworker who crafted his own farm and household tools, Anton would work on his writings for as long as 12 hours straight!
The simple wooden bench represents the persistence of the generations, parents’ impact on their children, and the importance of finding one’s own path and calling.
“Why should we bury ourselves in the marshes, when it’s easier to earn your daily bread elsewhere?” asked the boy, and when his father gave no answer, he added, “Unless it’s for love, of course…”
“Work and sweat, then love will come,” said the father.
“You’ve worked and sweated, and so did mother or she wouldn’t have died so young. But love never came and there’s none at Vargamäe to this day.” – „Truth and Justice“, p. 637
Tammsaare’s sister Marta Hansen’s clothes iron AT 188/Aj.23:1
On a weaved wire base rests an old-fashioned charcoal clothes iron made of heavy iron. It has a wooden handle and a thick funnel. The clothes iron is hollow inside and opens on the top by unlocking a latch. In order to get the iron nice and hot, charcoals are put inside the cavity. The height of the clothes iron body is 11 cm, the width is 12, and the length around 23 cm. There is a sideways funnel at the tail end of the charcoal iron, standing around 15 cm high from the body with an opening of about 5.5 cm. The handle of the clothes iron is a light turned-wood stick 16 cm long. In the centre part of the smooth wooden surface, 5 thin lines have been carved around the handle. Underneath the handle, there is a thin metal slate with an emblem of the producer and some royal letters forged onto it. The emblem is a long oval with a crown on top. On the left side of the oval, there is a lion standing on its hind legs, and on the right side, there is a unicorn in a similar position. The emblem is surrounded by a text that says: W&F. PERKS BY HER MAJESTY’S ROYAL LETTERS PATENT. The cover of the iron can be opened by pushing aside a metal latch with a round wooden button at the end. On the back end of the body of the clothes iron, there is a textured metal trinket: a hatch with a picture of a bearded man. The hatch can be uncovered to reveal a small hole that allows the charcoals to get some extra air and keep them burning. Working with a clothes iron like this must have required a lot of skill and patience to not accidentally burn a thin fabric or spill ash on a light coloured clothing. The clothes iron could safely be placed on a coal grate. The coal grate is a simple wire grid resting on three legs with thin wire twisted around them. It is shaped just like the base of the clothes iron. The width of the grate is 10cm, length 17 cm and height 4.5 cm.
The clothes iron belonged to the younger sister of the writer, Marta Hansen, who was a seamstress by profession. She was born in the Tammsaare-Põhja household on the 28th of August, 1886. Marta’s education was limited to just a few winters in the local village school. Their father Peeter did not put much emphasis on educating his daughters. Marta left home as a young girl to work as a maid. Later, she headed to Tallinn, where she tried to pursue education but ended up abandoning it later. Marta learned the profession of a seamstress and tailored dresses to the finest ladies in Tallinn. In older age, Marta herself gave the clothes iron to Tammsaare museum.
“Men rely on their mind and head in life, women on their feet and motherhood.” – “Truth and Justice,” IV
The flask that belonged to the writer’s father Peeter Hansen AT 17/ Aj 2:5
The big round, flat flask has a diameter of around 25 cm and it is 14.5 cm thick. The flask is light brown and made entirely of wood without using a single nail. The round side of the flask is made of panels held together by two hoops on the outer side of the flask. The other, flat sides, are round disks sawn out of wood. On one side of the flask, there is a wooden button stuck in front of a 2.7 cm opening. On each side of the opening, there are wooden hooks, around which a rope has been tied. The rope allows the owner to easily carry the flask on their shoulder. Altogether a container like this would fit 2-3 litres of refreshing beverage – enough for the whole day. The spruce wood flask was used to bring water, milk or kvass along to haymaking or other farm work further away. By today, the flask has completely dried and the liquid would quickly pour out from all the little cracks.
The flask comes from the writer’s father Peeter Hansen’s father’s farm in Kolgioja. The flask was one of the items that the writer’s parents took with them when they moved to their new home, Tammsaare-Põhja farm in April 1872. The flask was given to the museum by the wife of Tammsaare’s brother August, Hilda Hansen.
“The head felt heavy, numb and dizzy and not like his head, but a flask with a slopping soured milk.” – “Truth and Justice,” II
Father Peeter Hansen’s beer tankard AT 69/Aj 3:2
The simple, undecorated light brown beer tankard is a wooden drink container that has seen many good years and witnessed countless events. It stands 24 cm tall, the round base has a diameter of 18.5cm and the top opening has a diameter of 15 cm. The body of the beer tankard consists of 11 vertical panels, alternating between light and dark wood. The body is supported by wooden rods around it: two in the bottom, and four in the middle part. The walls of the tankard are 1 cm thick. The masculine character of the tankard can be seen in its large keg-like body that fits 2-3 litres, and in the strong well-worn handle. The handle is slightly arched and ends with a protruding tab in the bottom. The upper part of the handle raises above the edge of the tankard opening and functions as the attachment point for the lid. The lid of the drink container is round and made of one single piece of wood, reaching over both sides of the top of the handle. This is where the lid is attached to the handle by a simple wooden stick that functions as a hinge. A beer tankard like this required some strength to be lifted and as a rule, it was not meant to be used by just one person. The head of the household would pass the tankard round the table to show hospitality and take pride in offering the guests some home-brewed beer. It is thought that the tankard belonged to the father of the writer Anton Hansen Tammsaare. He always brewed beer for holidays and important occasions. To this day, one can spot common hop growing in the garden. Hop was added to the beer to give it a stronger taste.
„It was important for the beer to be good, so good that anyone who drank heartily would break into song. If they liked the beer, they’d drink less vodka. Some people liked to add juniper for flavor, but Andres preferred the bitter taste of hops.“ – „Truth and Justice“, p. 324
Mother Ann Hansen’s dowry chest
The dowry box is a two-sided oval box made of light-coloured wood. The diameter of the oval is 54 times 47 cm. It is the perfect size to be held between two hands on a lap. The dowry chest looks old and worn. The lid is 16cm tall and the actual chest is 18.5cm tall. The lid does not fit over the box entirely but stays aligned on top of the chest. The dowry chest is a simple and surprisingly heavy box made for storing dowry. Dowry is the bride’s gifts to the relatives and wedding guests of the groom.
The sides of the dowry chest are made of long bent strips of wood that have been planed about 1 cm thin. The base and the lid are made of 3 wide wooden boards stuck together. The connections between the lid, sides, and base are made of small round wooden sticks. The wooden strips that have been bent into the sides of the box have a large overlap of about 23 cm. The point of the overlap outside is covered with a modest decoration woven out of birch bark. The decoration in two vertical lines on both the lid and the base. Each of the patterns is about 2-3 cm wide and creates a row of round jagged lines depending on whether it is weaved inside or outside. There are 6 times 2 jagged lines on the lid and 7 times 2 on the base. The distance between the two braided rows is 10 cm. The external edges of the lid of the box have been rounded. The texture on the lid is grooved and the wood grain can clearly be felt upon touch. Contrastingly, the sides of the box are very smooth and slightly wavy due to careful wood planing.
In its simplicity, the heavy dowry chest reminds us of what life was like for women 150 years ago. We can easily imagine, that this is the very dowry chest that Krõõt from ‘Truth and Justice’’ was holding in her lap sitting on the carriage on her way to Vargamäe.
The dowry chest described above actually belonged to the writer’s mother Ann Hansen. She was from Jüriõue sauna near Suure-Jaani, Viljandimaa. The writer’s father Peeter Hansen asked for Ann Bachoff’s hand in marriage on the recommendation of his sister Mari. The courtship was successful and Ann and Peeter got married on the 27th of February in 1872, in Suure-Jaani church. Because Peeter’s birth farm was inherited by his older brother Hans, the young couple moved to Tammsaare-Põhja farm in Järvamaa. Ann brought a dowry chest and this dowry box with her when she moved to her new home.
„Strangely, even on difficult days, Krõõt no longer thought about her father’s home, or at most, she experienced only dim, dark memories. She now had only one place in the world, and that was Vargamäe. Here, she’d pried cows out of the marsh; here, she’d toiled as if it were her life’s desire; and here, her two children were born into a hard and bitter world.“ – „Truth and Justice“, p. 147
Brother Jüri Hansen’s suitcase AT 190/Aj 25
The square suitcase with rounded corners stands 32 cm high, 48 cm long and 22 cm wide as closed. But for an average suitcase, the empty bag is surprisingly heavy. The dark brown suitcase has thick handles made of lighter reddish-brown leather. Beneath the handles, in the middle of the suitcase edge is a metal lock with a golden finish, the key to which has been lost. On either side of the handles there is a leather strap with a buckle helping to hold the suitcase closed. The body of the suitcase is supported by metal rods that run between the handle and the buckle all around the suitcase. There is also a metal plate in the outside of each corner of the suitcase. The metal rods are brown and they have been hemmed with studs. Some of the studs and metal has turned green.
On the outside of one of the sides, there is a large diamond-shaped tear, which reveals that the frame inside is made of wood and covered in reddish-brown fabric to imitate a more expensive leather suitcase. You can also see a tiny bit of red primer peeking from the tear. The suitcase is time-worn and its surface is brown with shades of green and red.
The interior of the suitcase is covered with a light fabric with thin alternating stripes of red and black on it. The two sides of the suitcase are separated by a thin panel, which can be used to close one of the sides with a buckled strap. Over the other side run two parallel horizontal straps that allow securing the contents similarly to modern suitcases. The interior fabric is stained and slightly torn around the metal hinges. Upon opening the suitcase, one can faintly smell wood and mould. Seeing the capacity of the suitcase makes you think of how little earthly possessions the owner at the time must have had.
Even though this late-19-century suitcase has lost its dashing looks through changing owners and destinations, it is still fluent in telling compelling stories. This was the suitcase that the writer’s older brother Jüri Hansen used in 1894 when he left Tammsaare-Põhja farm to go serve in Ivangorod artillery forces. Later, Jüri’s son Albert took the very same suitcase with him, when he went to the service in the army of the Republic of Estonia in 1925. Albert also sewed new handles and changed the straps and buckles of the suitcase.
„He sought a hint, a little pretext that’d allow him to believe his first son would return to Vargamäe after his service, that he’d plow the same fields, mow the same meadows, and walk the land he’d drained, cleared, and farmed. But the son was immune to those probes, as if no deep feelings tied him to Vargamäe.“ – „Truth and Justice“, p. 619
Tammsaare-Põhja farm house window AT108/Aj43
This is an old window frame from a traditional Estonian barn house. The frame is shaped like an upright rectangle and it is divided into 6 squares. The measurements are 92 x 78 cm. The frame is 3.5 cm thick. The central vertical rail is the thickest, followed by the stiles/surrounding rails. The grilles separating the window panes are the thinnest. The dark brown frame is surprisingly large for a barn house. The upper right window pane has a very contemporary function – it can be opened as a vent. To open the pane, there is a simple metal lock and metal hinges on the right side. In the entire window, the glass has only remained intact on two top left window panes. The upper corner of the top glass pane is broken and missing a chip on the left. From the back, you can see, that the glass has been attached to the frame with putty, as was common at the time it was made in. The grey white stripe of putty can easily be seen on the middle right window pane and on the remaining glass. The lower left corner of the window frame is darkened and sooty, clearly indicating it has been in a fire. Around some parts of the window frame, you can see remains of faded newspaper peeling, which has probably been used to insulate the window against the cold of the Nordic climate. Some parts of the words written in old Estonian can still be seen on the paper. The paper slips can be easily spotted and felt on the top left corner rail of the window.
When the writer’s father Peeter Hansen built new living quarters to the barn house, passers-by would say that the windows are as large as in a church. The new rooms had enough space for all the many members of the Hansen family. Later, this house was the home of the writer’s older brother, August. When August finished building a new house, the barn house became an outbuilding. In the winter of 1945, the building, unfortunately, caught fire and not much remained besides the ruins of the furnace. Some household items were saved from the fire, including this window frame. When the barn house was being restored in honour of the writer’s 100th birthday, the frame was used to determine the measures of new windows.
„All through that spring and summer, building the rooms was the number one task. In the master’s mind, it was work done not just for the benefit of today or tomorrow, but a lifetime. Accordingly, the new rooms were much larger than the old ones, with big Windows that let in lots of light. Because the windows were so large, everyone thought the rooms would be too cold, but the master stuck to his own ideas.“ – „Truth and Justice“, p. 145
A teapot that belonged to the master of Tammsaare-Lõuna farm, Jakob Sikenberg AT 337/AJ 50
A light-coloured porcelain teapot in its fragile elegance is the pride of every housewife. The stout body of the teapot that can fit multiple hot cups of tea, is complemented by a delicate rose pattern. The white porcelain teapot is oval and lengthened from handle to spout. From above, the teapot is around 21 cm long and 11 cm wide. The height of the teapot with the lid is 12 cm. The lid has a round knob, the handle winds circularly inward at the top and the spout has a classical shape. The stout body of the teapot is decorated with thin textured stripes spaced evenly. On both sides of the belly, there is a romantic rose pattern: red lush rose blossoms and green leaves. Due to a high degree of wear, you can barely notice that the teapot was decorated by golden lines running around the lid and knob, on the sides of the spout and on the middle line on the handle. The white lid of the teapot is also decorated with the rose pattern repeating on both sides. Here, the pattern is smaller and consists of two open blossoms and plenty of leaves. The base of the knob is decorated with a textured pearl belt. From the centre of the lid run textured stripes like rays towards the edges of the lid. Taking a peek inside, we can see, that the base of the teapot has been fractured. You can see a web of cracks, of which a longer crevice can also be spotted from the outside to the right of the spout.
The teapot must have served tea for 5-6 people at a time. It is probably a cherished item, that carries signs of constant use as a type of family relic. To think of all the stories, hustle-and-bustle and cheerful noise the teapot must have heard!
The teapot comes from the neighbours of the writer’s parents, the family of the head of Lõuna farm, Jakob Sikenberg. The head of Tammsaare-Lõuna farm, Jakob Sikenberg, was a diligent and ardent farmer. In 1888, he built a new house for his family. It was the first chimneyed house in Vetepere village. The windows of the house were decorated with lace curtains made by Jakob’s daughters. In the books of ‘Truth and Justice’, Jakob Sikenberg serves as a prototype for Pearu. It might be that the teapot from Lõuna talu was a wedding gift on December 14, 1908, when Tammsaare-Lõuna family son August Sikenberg married Adeele Saks from Rummusaare. The teapot was given to the museum by Liivia Vaaderpall, the granddaughter of Jakob Sikenberg. The descendants of Sikenbergs continue to live in Tammsaare-Lõuna farm to this day.
„Wealth is closer to truth than poverty.“ – „Truth and Justice“, p. 182
Father Peeter Hansen’s mathematics textbook AT 164/ Ar.179:3
Let it be clear from the beginning that this is not the big and heavy maths textbook that we know today. This textbook that belonged to Tammsaare’s father Peeter Hansen, looks like a thin greyish-brown booklet filled with handwritten notes. Upright, the square textbook’s measurements are 22cm in length and 18 cm in width. The covers are not much thicker than the pages inside, which have been darkened and slightly scratched and stained. On the cover, it says Arvamise Raamat (old Estonian for Book of Mathematics) and the name of the person who has copied the book: Tõnis Adelsohn. More specifically, the cover says: „Arvamise – Ramat mis Ria arvamise ramato järrele walmistanud Tõnnis Adelson Jani kirriko jures sel 12mal März 1849”. It is in Estonian and written in old-fashioned spelling. The textbook has been copied in 1849, it is full of handwritten text from cover to cover. Some text can even be found on the outside of the back cover! The text runs in two columns, like in a Bible. The columns and exercises have been separated by lines. On the back of the book are beige binding cords that tie together 6 content sheets. This book resembles the books one would craft in childhoods of just a few sheets of paper and a little string. Only the practical and ambitious content is very different – there are kegs, chests, rubles, and kopecks all over in text and number.
The textbook comes from Kolgioja, Peeter Hansen’s birthplace. This is the book that he used for studying. Peeter Hansen went to Rääka village school when he was 12 years old. Later, he studied in the Suure-Jaani parish school. One of his teachers there was Joosep Kapp, a leading actor in the Estonian Age of Awakening. He endowed his students with thorough knowledge of natural sciences and mathematics. There were no textbooks in the school, so they used concept notes written by themselves as well as handwritten copies of textbooks, just like this one here.
“Maths and only maths is the best to avoid falling in love, I know this. I cure myself mainly with maths. It’s great. Sometimes I even amaze myself how fast and good cure it is.” – “Truth and Justice”, II
The manuscript of a poem by the writer Anton Hansen Tammsaare AT/ Ar.110:1
Tammsaare’s earliest literary pursuits were in the form of poetry. This poem, written on a small fragile piece of paper of 20 x 13 cm, was a gift for his older brother on his wedding day. The poem is comprised of 8 stanzas and written in grey ink on both sides of the lined paper. The first page is written in five stanzas that run tightly from the top of the page to the bottom. The stanzas can be distinguished with some difficulty by how the writing winds. The zig-zag column of the poem leaves some room on the left and right edges of the paper. On the back side, there are three more stanzas, written similarly. The poem ends in the middle part of the page with a greeting that says: “Seesammas sinu wend. A.” (old Estonian for ‘Your self-same brother A.) with each part of the phrase on a separate line. Upon gently sliding fingertips over the text, one can feel the texture of the words. Tammsaare’s cursive handwriting is quite even and emphasises the upper or lower parts of letters that stretch vertically. One can easily notice the old-fashioned writing of the letter S, which looks like a combination of j and l. Also, in a few places, the letter w is used instead of v. The sheet of paper looks old and has brown stains. In the middle, there is a trace of the paper being folded width wise, which has been delicately fixed during restoration. There are also two pencil comments in different handwriting on the top next to the poem. On the top, it says ‘’9 sm’’ with two outward facing arrows on the sides. On the top left part of the page, there are curly brackets, with a note “Klišeerida” (old Estonian for ‘to print’) next to it.
The poem itself sounds like this:
Laulatuse päävaks vennale
Hommikul ju koidu puhkel
Paisuma lõi minu rind,
Tahtsin tundmustel nii rohkel
Tervitada, veli, Sind
Tahtsin õnnesoovi luua
Tahtsin kõik mu tunded tuua
Täna ohvriks tunnile,
Kus Sa elu pöördel seisad
Kus Su laev on sadamas
Kust Sa kord veel pilgu heidad
Ajasse, mis kadumas.
Puistaku siis heledest taevas
Tuhat õnne Sinule;
Sinu kaas las olla vaevas
Rõõmuks kurva rinnale.
Kui on Sinul pisar laugel,
Kui on elumure suur,
Peletagu seda kaugel
Naises seisev armu juur.
Tema silm las sumbutada
Ainus pilk las tuletada
Meele algsed armulood.
Kui ehk armus loitvad tuled
Jahtuvad pea tundmustes,
Sulagu siis teie huuled
Kokku soojas sõpruses.
Kui ka kõik on elus kaduv,
Kui ka kõik nii petlik näib-
Olgu naise arm siis kasuv,
Las ta kõigest üle käib.
The writer’s brother Jüri Hansen married Alviine Toim in 1899 in Tallinn. In 1903, their family moved to Oru forester farm in Koitjärve. From a letter to their sister Maria, it becomes apparent that Anton did in fact not attend his brother’s wedding, even though the older brothers would have covered his travel expenses. At this time, Anton was studying at Hugo Treffner High School.
“ The only point of marriage is losing one’s independence, other wise there’s no marriage.” – “Truth and Justice”, IV